The first car appeared in late 19th century Europe. It would soon revolutionize transportation and society as people knew it, offering new independence and economic possibility. It wasn’t until the 1939 World’s Fair that people envisioned a futuristic society in which humans didn’t have to always be in the driver’s seat, literally and metaphorically. Cars that could drive themselves were a fantasy that would signify a new age.
While it seemed like the Twilight Zone back then, that future is closer than we may think. The self-driving car has been in stages of research, testing and production for the past several years. In 2017, the hype for driverless cars reached a peak with companies like Google, Uber and more starting to produce them. If the idea comes to fruition, connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) could dramatically reduce the 1.3 million people per year who die in automobile-related incidents. They could also improve traffic conditions in congested metropolitan areas, reduce stress, and free up humans to spend time outside the confines of the vehicle.
However, excitement from these technological advancements have met some roadblocks, no pun intended. In March 2018, two tragic accidents alarmed everyone in the industry. A self-driving Uber struck and killed a pedestrian, and a Tesla autopilot Model X car killed a customer when it crashed into a lane divider.
These incidents poured cold water on a burgeoning idea. Google’s Waymo, which didn’t have any such tragedies, slowed its rollout of vehicles in showrooms. Manufacturers need to conquer the remaining technical challenges before our roads consist of empty driver seats. Now, experts are predicting that self-driving cars may not enter the market for several more decades. Automation poses a challenge to self-driving cars succeeding, but it is humans who are, ironically, the real hindrance.
Artificial intelligence shines brightest in the self-driving car. So what’s missing? Human intelligence in situations like avoiding a jaywalking pedestrian. What’s more, the computer systems that CAVs rely on are at risk for hacking. Fiat Chrysler recently recalled 1.4 million Jeep Cherokees after discovering they were easily hackable for functions like acceleration and radio. The CAV would rely 100% on similar computer systems, requiring much more robust security. Another challenge is ensuring sensors read signs correctly after suffering harm by things such as vandalism or weather damage.
How can the automobile industry overcome these challenges and persevere with the self-driving car? Finding a way for humans and computers to mesh well on the road is key to breaking through barriers to this technology entering the market. Until then, fully automated vehicles pose great risks to humans, whether they are in the vehicle or on the sidewalks as pedestrians. Emergency vehicles like police and ambulances will likely still need human drivers who can communicate with the automated vehicles on the road.
At the moment, driverless cars remain in controlled testing environments where structures like lane-changing systems, post-accident braking and crash avoidance systems are being improved. The University of Michigan is leading the effort with its autonomous city. There may be a long way to go, but the future is bright with the combination of seamless technology and the power of the human mind.
I have long believed that digital ledger technology (DLT) will be so disruptive in so many sectors throughout the world that it will one day be bigger than the Internet, and I am not alone in that view.
Computerworld.com senior reporter Lucas Mearian wrote in January 2019 that DLT displays the same sort of potential once shown by TCP/IP, the framework for the worldwide web. No one could have pictured a quarter-century ago that the Net would be such an integral part of our everyday lives, yet here we are.
And here comes DLT, a decentralized ledger most often associated with cryptocurrencies. Such ledgers are, in essence, asset databases capable of being shared among countless participants, with any changes made by any party shared in real time, resulting in increased transparency and security.
DLT is a term often used interchangeably (and erroneously) with blockchain, when in actuality the latter is a form of DLT used in conjunction with bitcoin, the much-hyped crypto launched in 2009.
Mearian cites a Gartner study of CIOs concluding that whereas just one percent of companies had put DLT to use in the spring of 2018, that number had increased to 3.3 percent less than a year later. Mearian believes that that trend will only continue, and others agree, noting the way in which DLT is expected to reduce infrastructure costs by no less than $20 billion by 2022.
- Elections: Because e-voting is secure and convenient — i.e., there’s no need to travel to a polling place — it is viewed as a method by which turnout can be increased, while minimizing the possibility of voter fraud. It was enacted in a non-governmental situation in 2016, when Nasdaq and the Republic of Estonia put in place a system that enabled shareholders of companies listed on the Tallinn Stock Exchange to vote in shareholder meetings. Pursuing this same approach to managing voting in U.S. elections could prove to be materially effective, particularly in view of the fact that according to a 2018 Pew Foundation study, the U.S. ranks. as 31st among 35 developed nations in voter participation. In 2016, West Virginia became the first state in the Union to employ DLT-based technology in a primary, representing a potential sign of things to come in evolving election processes in this country.
- Healthcare: DLT is seen as being particularly critical in this space, where patient identification and information blocking remain enormous concerns. There is no uniform method for identifying patients, which can lead to errors on the part of the provider and harm to the patient. Information blocking — described as “an unreasonable constraint imposed on the exchange of patient data or electronic health information” — is widespread. Both issues can be alleviated by DLT, since electronic medical records can be made accurate, secure and free from potential interference.
- Real Estate: DLT’s most significant impact here is in the area of smart contracts, since it is possible for a buyer and seller to complete a deal more efficiently (and, again, more securely) via this technology; neither brokers nor attorneys need to be involved. ShelterZoom, a New York City-based startup, is planning to launch a platform that does just that in early 2019, and some 90 brokerages around the world have tested it. Property data could also be stored in an online ledger, though Hunter Perry, Senior Manager of Strategic Growth at Compass, cautioned in a piece for Forbes that transferring current records would be a Herculean task.
- Supply Chain: Because of DLT, it is possible to track all facets of logistical processes. Any party involved can know the nature, quality, quantity and ownership of whatever item (or items) are being moved through the pipeline, and can be aware of it in real time through such technology as barcodes. That is of no small consequence to producers, manufacturers and inspectors, as well as consumers. Anyone can be involved in quality control, which is particularly critical when it comes to matters like food safety.
From my vantage point, the future value proposition of DLT cannot be adequately quantified, because the opportunities are so vast and boast disruptive potential for game-changing innovation and enhanced efficiencies across a growing number of sectors and industry applications. Nonetheless, make no mistake: DLT is the future and great wealth will undoubtedly be created for those who embrace it and successfully harness its dynamic potential.
Technology is causing business transactions to change their very nature. Automation is making them quicker, more accurate, more secure and with fewer errors. With the help of the Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence, human travel and paper trails are quickly becoming inconveniences of the past. Enter the smart contract.
Smart contracts are agreements between people executed through computer code. The business exchange, be it keys for rent, candy for vending machine change or money for groceries, can be done entirely electronically. There is no stroke of a pen, swiping of a credit card, signing of a check or shaking of hands. Since its discovery in the early 1990s, smart contract technology is helping more secure and efficient business practices launch into the future.
Smart contracts are possible through blockchain technology, a digital ledger that keeps records of financial transactions, notably those involving such cryptocurrencies as bitcoin, on a peer-to-peer network. Blockchain, also known as distributed ledger technology (DLT), stores transactions on a public database, making them more secure.
These so-called “smart” contracts bring many benefits. The electronic nature of each transaction standardizes the rules, significantly reducing the costs of reaching, formalizing and enforcing an agreement. When it comes to any agreement between two parties, DLT can track a transaction’s performance in real-time. The peer-to-peer network keeps track of each transaction so that no third party can interfere and/or manipulate it, ultimately making transactions much more secure and the people making them less vulnerable to identity theft and other forms of fraud.
The automobile industry will see the benefits of smart contracts through self-driving cars and a reduction in car thefts. Automated keys store the owner’s identity on the blockchain. Banking can be improved by automating several transaction processes and making them more secure.
When voting through smart contracts, security is no longer as much of a concern due to the reliability of blockchain technology. Voting processes and turnout can also benefit. Simplifying voting execution and making it done remotely can increase voter participation significantly.
Healthcare is also expected to benefit from smart contracts. Processes like authenticating patient data and executing insurance trials will be simpler and cheaper. Schools, law firms, supply chain companies and real estate agencies should also reap the rewards of smart contracts, and other businesses figure to benefit, as well. In fact, many argue that smart contracts will prove valuable to nearly every business on the planet that handles transactions.
Though smart contracts bring the promise of many improvements to modern business practices, they may not be as smart as they seem. They are only as intelligent as the people doing the coding and the information available to them at the time. It is also still a new technology, making it vulnerable to pitfalls and bugs. Possibilities for mistakes make smart contracts much more accessible to hackers.
As mentioned, today’s smart contracts primarily center around cryptocurrencies. There is much to do before smart contracts are a regular part of daily life. Questions linger on governmental regulation, taxation, and backup plans for when transactions go wrong. However, as technologists work to solve the pitfalls of smart contracts, they become more and more woven into the fabric of our business culture.
America’s most pressing problems span many political, religious and economic situations. When identifying the cause and solution to these problems, the opioid crisis is often directly connected. It affects people of all backgrounds, socioeconomic statuses and education levels. However, solving it requires more than just addiction treatment. It inevitably means preventing addiction before it even begins.
The truth about opioids
Opioid addiction has grown from a crisis to an epidemic. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that nearly 50,000 people in America died of opioid addiction overdoses in 2017 alone, which equates to approximately 130 deaths per day and a 10 percent increase over 2016. What’s more, the United States consumes about 80 percent of the world’s supply of opioids while only accounting for roughly 5 percent of the world’s population. Since 1991, opioid abuse has been exasperated by the fact that prescriptions have increased by 300 percent.
Opioid addiction leads to a slew of other devastating problems such as increases in diseases like HIV, decreased life expectancy overall, and gateways into other drugs. The New England Journal of Medicine reported that about 80 percent of heroin users began their downward spiral by misusing opioid prescriptions.
Other than cutting off opioids altogether, how can pain be managed and addiction prevented and treated? The answer may be growing in the yard. Cannabis, the controversial drug often associated with recreation, is proving to have significant medical uses.
The cannabis effect
As a drug, cannabis can treat pain and also prevent/combat dependence, helping to curtail addiction by decreasing tolerance for opioids and thus reducing needed doses of narcotic medications. Research on chronic pain treatment shows medical marijuana can reduce or even replace opioid prescriptions.
Cannabis’ function as a positive alternative to opioids is undeniable. The National Academies of Science and Medicine showed cannabis reduced opioid usage by up to 60 percent. Another study showed a 70 percent drop in opioid dependence when replacing narcotics with cannabis. Ingesting cannabis also resulted in fewer side effects and improvement in cognitive function.
The research speaks for itself on medical marijuana helping to curb the opioid crisis. Even so, cannabis may have a long way to go before becoming widely accepted as an alternative form of pain relief.
Cannabis is now legal for medical use in 30 US states but struggles with continued taboo stereotypes. The government classifies it only as a Schedule I drug, defining it as unuseful medically and potentially dangerous recreationally, like heroin or LSD. These obstacles make it challenging for researchers to obtain grants, which in turn limits their ability to study cannabis’ true nature. Nonetheless, there are those who are making headway.
In June 2018, the FDA approved the first pure cannabis-derived drug, Epidiolex, a liquid formulation developed by GW Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: GWPH) for the treatment of two rare and severe forms of epilepsy: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. While GW Pharmaceuticals’ focus is not on pain relief, according to GlobalData, there are currently 60 other ongoing clinical trials with cannabis-based products with the majority of these products being tested in pain or psychosis.
Though there is still much to be done in the form of research on cannabis’ potential to curb the opioid crisis in the United States, the evidence thus far points to much potential. Speeding up the implementation of medical marijuana across the country requires more investment and political backing. Perhaps, then, it can help make the opioid crisis a distant memory.
In the debate as to whether a business would be better-served using a private or public cloud for data storage, the answer that has emerged is quite simple: All of the above.
The hybrid cloud would more often than not appear to be the best answer, as it combines the security of a private cloud with the speed and flexibility of the public cloud.
The debate, however, figures to rage on, as different companies have different needs. One thing that is indisputable, however, is the value of data: Globally it is worth some $3 trillion, trailing only the oil and banking industries. As a result, data integration technology, worth $6.44 billion in 2016, is expected to nearly double in value to $12.24 billion by 2022.
To date the use of public clouds is more common. Under that scenario, everything — every bit of infrastructure, every bit of hardware and software — is in the hands of a third-party provider. Things are more efficient and easier to use. A company has no worries about maintenance or reliability, and it doesn’t cost much to make use of the public cloud.
But, once again, security is a potential issue, as your business shares network space with others — no small matter, considering hackers stole some $12.8 billion of data in 2016 alone. And that is not the case with the private cloud. Yes, your IT team has to maintain it. But it can also customize it and make it more secure.
In a hybrid situation, however, a company can cherry-pick the best aspects of both technologies. There is the security of the private cloud and the reliability of the public cloud, all rolled into one. It was suggested in one report that it would be best to use the public cloud for such things as web-based email, while more sensitive data, such as financial reports, could be shielded in the private cloud.
Such a configuration also allows a business to break apart the data silos that can plague companies — i.e., the set-up under which different groups within the same walls are able to access certain information, while others cannot. One blog pointed out that that divide can fall under cultural, structural or technological lines, but the result is always the same — massive inefficiency.
Forbes noted that third-party providers have already begun to implement hybrid solutions, as evidenced by Microsoft (with Azure), HPE (with Cloud Tech Partners) or VMware (with Cloud Health Technologies).
To date cloud integration strategies can be divided into seven categories:
- iPaaS (Integration Platform as a Service): Application-programming interface (API) communication simplified, via a console.
- Big Data Integration Platform: Data collected from various sources and fed to external databases, via processors.
- Cloud Migration: Enterprise files transferred to the cloud.
- Ecommerce Data Integration: Ecommerce platforms melded with with external apps and databases.
- Enterprise Service Bus: Joining and monitoring of internal apps.
- Extract, Load and Transfer: The oldest service of the bunch; takes data from various sources, organizes it and delivers it to its final resting place.
- Stream Analytics: Coordinating and monitoring Internet of Things (IoT) endpoints.
No matter the path a business chooses, this would appear to be the wave of the future, the ultimate answer to an ongoing debate.
It appears that the only limits on distributed ledger technology (DLT) are those of the imagination. Its use cases, once limited to cryptocurrency, can run from elections to energy, from food safety to online dating.
That should not, however, lessen the excitement over DLT, the tamper-proof digital ledger which in its guise as blockchain served as bitcoin’s backbone. So if we were to ask about its potential, it would not be inaccurate to say that it is nearly limitless.
More specifically, a distributed ledger is essentially an asset database that can be shared across a network of multiple sites, geographies or institutions. All participants within a network can have their own identical copy of the ledger – a ledger that can be distributed widely in a precisely controlled fashion. Any changes to the ledger are reflected in all copies in seconds; and the assets can be financial, legal, physical or electronic. In summary, DLT provides the framework for organizations to achieve granular transparency and enhanced privacy, while reducing fraud, corruption, error and the cost of paper-intensive processes.
As a result, DLT continues to impact the financial services industry — as shown when Santander (among other banks) merged blockchain with its app — and other uses for DLT in this space can be expected to emerge as well.
Along with that is the trend in some countries toward state-run cryptocurrencies. That has most notably occurred in Venezuela, where a crypto known as the petro raised $735 million when it was released in 2018, according to Nicolas Maduro, president of that cash-strapped nation.
Alas, it did nothing to relieve Venezuela’s financial turmoil, and there are questions going forward about the worth of a state-run crypto. Such nations as China, Russia, Qatar and Iran, seeking to minimize the influence of the American dollar within their borders, are nonetheless considering a move in that direction, as are Singapore and Switzerland.
As mentioned, elections are another arena in which DLT has shown promise. In 2018, West Virginia became the first U.S. state to employ the technology in a primary, using biometrics to verify a voter’s identity and third-party verification to legitimize results. This model could prove to be scalable, as it would presumably eliminate voter fraud — again, the system is tamper-proof — and boost turnout.
Another use of DLT is in supply chains. A United Kingdom pilot program allowed that nation’s Food Standards Agency to access the data of a cattle slaughterhouse, which in turn enabled that body and the business to see the same information at the same time, as opposed to being forced to review various hard copies.
It has been theorized further that DLT could be used in other ways in food safety — that, for example, a piece of fruit could be tagged at an orchard and then scanned by a grocer or customer, enabling either to determine its freshness, whether it had been exposed to pesticides, etc.
And a word or two about one of the far-flung applications of DLT: online dating. As shown with a site called Loly, the tech could eliminate fraudulent profiles and also be used to verify consent.
Again, the only limits on this technology are those of the imagination. The possible applications know very few bounds.